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even further In the expression of its views. On September 2, 1939, when
Germany had Invaded Poland and Great Britain was still undecided as
to her own action, the British Communists issued a manifesto in
support of the war. Harry Pollitt, leader of the Party, wrote an en-
thusiastic pamphlet under the title How to Win the War : 

"... The Communist Party supports the war/' he emphasized, "be-
lieving it to be a just war which should be supported by the whole working
class and all friends of Democracy in Britain . . . To stand aside from this
confiict, to contribute only revolutionary sounding phrases, while the Fascist
beasts ride rough-shod over Europe, would be a betrayal of everything
our forbears have fought to achieve in the course of long years of struggle
against capitalism. The Polish people have no choice, war has been thrust
on them. They have had to fight to defend themselves from a foreign
attack whose only purpose is to enslave them to Nazi Germany ... If
Hitler is allowed to impose his domination on Poland, the people will be
forced to accept conditions infinitely worse than anything they have yet
suffered . . . Whatever the motive of the present rulers of Britain and
France, the action taken by them under considerable pressure from their
own people is not only helping the Polish people's fight;, but is actually,
for the first time, challenging the Nazi aggression.

" Now that the war has corne we have no hesitation in stating the policy
of the Communist Party . . . We are in support of all necessary measures
to secure the Victory of Democracy over Fascism ..."

It was quite clearly put  Poland was in the camp of democracy  the
Germans were the Fascists. The shock was to come a fortnight later
when Stalin, complying with his agreement with Germany, gave orders
for his army to invade Poland ; the Communist Parties in the West were
held to ridicule for their ce ludicrous ignorance of what had been taking
place, and for their pretence of self-righteous omniscience."* They lost
many of their sympathisers. In Britain the leader, Pollitt, after his un-
timely manifesto, was removed, and his pamphlet was withdrawn from
circulation. His successors commenced a new policy issuing a
strongly-worded proclamation on October 4, stating that it was " not a
just and defensive war which Britain and Germany are fighting, but one
for imperialist aims, colonies and world domination," and that " Polish
war-mongers led their country into war at British instigation/'f Finally,
as a result of their anti-British policy, the Daily Worker was banned.

During the two succeeding years, the Communist Party of Great Britain
repeated the Bolsheviks' slogans of the First Great War, the key phrase
being, c the transformation of an imperialist war into a civil war * and
* the enemy is the governing class of one's own country.' Russia's entry
into this Second Great War re-vitalised the British Communist Party,

* A similar situation developed in 1944, when Russia, without consulting
Great; Britain or America, recognised the Bagdolio Government in Italy. The
Communists, until then strongly criticising Bagdolio found thems elves in a

t GoJancz, Victor, The Betrayal of the Left> London, 1940 and Mcdaja Soviet-
duga Ewsikhpedia {Small Soviet Encyclopedia),, 1940, Vol. Xa p. 997, wrote :
** * . . in Autumn, 1939, the unwise leaders of a landlord Poland, ordered by
Anglo-French imperialists, started the war against Germany."